Health Risks from Excessive Vitamin C 

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Health Risks from Excessive Vitamin C   Vitamin C has low toxicity and is not believed to cause serious adverse effects at high intakes. The most common complaints are diarrhea, nausea, abdominal cramps, and other gastrointestinal disturbances due to the osmotic effect of unabsorbed vitamin C in the gastrointestinal tract.  In postmenopausal women with diabetes who participated in the Iowa Women’s Health Study, supplemental (but not dietary) vitamin C intake (at least 300 mg/day) was significantly associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease mortality. The mechanism for this effect, if real, is not clear and this finding is from a subgroup of patients in an epidemiological study. No such association has been observed in any other epidemiological study, so the significance of this finding is uncertain. High vitamin C…
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Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cataracts 

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Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cataracts  AMD and cataracts are two of the leading causes of vision loss in older individuals. Oxidative stress might contribute to the etiology of both conditions. Thus, researchers have hypothesized that vitamin C and other antioxidants play a role in the development and/or treatment of these diseases.  A population-based cohort study in the Netherlands found that adults aged 55 years or older who had high dietary intakes of vitamin C as well as beta-carotene, zinc, and vitamin E had a reduced risk of AMD. However, most prospective studies do not support these findings. The authors of a 2007 systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies and randomized clinical trials concluded that the current evidence does not support a role for vitamin C and other…
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Vitamin C and Health 

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Vitamin C and Health  Due to its function as an antioxidant and its role in immune function, vitamin C has been promoted as a means to help prevent and/or treat numerous health conditions. This section focuses on four diseases and disorders in which vitamin C might play a role: cancer (including prevention and treatment), cardiovascular disease, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cataracts, and the common cold.  Cancer prevention  Epidemiologic evidence suggests that higher consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with lower risk of most types of cancer, perhaps, in part, due to their high vitamin C content. Vitamin C can limit the formation of carcinogens, such as nitrosamines, in vivo; modulate immune response; and, through its antioxidant function, possibly attenuate oxidative damage that can lead to cancer.  Most case-control…
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Vitamin C Intakes and Status

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Vitamin C Intakes and Status  According to the 2001–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), mean intakes of vitamin C are 105.2 mg/day for adult males and 83.6 mg/day for adult females, meeting the currently established RDA for most nonsmoking adults. Mean intakes for children and adolescents aged 1-18 years range from 75.6 mg/day to 100 mg/day, also meeting the RDA for these age groups. Although the 2001–2002 NHANES analysis did not include data for breastfed infants and toddlers, breastmilk is considered an adequate source of vitamin C. Use of vitamin C-containing supplements is also relatively common, adding to the total vitamin C intake from food and beverages. NHANES data from 1999–2000 indicate that approximately 35% of adults take multivitamin supplements (which typically contain vitamin C) and 12% take a…
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Recommended Intakes 

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Recommended Intakes Intake recommendations for vitamin C and other nutrients are provided in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) developed by the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) at the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies (formerly National Academy of Sciences). DRI is the general term for a set of reference values used for planning and assessing nutrient intakes of healthy people. These values, which vary by age and gender, include:  ● Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): Average daily level of intake sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97%–98%) healthy individuals; often used to plan nutritionally adequate diets for individuals.  ● Adequate Intake (AI): Intake at this level is assumed to ensure nutritional adequacy; established when evidence is insufficient to develop an RDA.  ● Estimated Average Requirement (EAR):…
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VITAMIN C 

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VITAMIN C  Vitamin C, also known as L-ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. Humans, unlike most animals, are unable to synthesize vitamin C endogenously, so it is an essential dietary component.  Vitamin C is required for the biosynthesis of collagen, L-carnitine, and certain neurotransmitters; vitamin C is also involved in protein metabolism. Collagen is an essential component of connective tissue, which plays a vital role in wound healing. Vitamin C is also an important physiological antioxidant and has been shown to regenerate other antioxidants within the body, including alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). Ongoing research is examining whether vitamin C, by limiting the damaging effects of free radicals through its antioxidant activity, might help prevent or…
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Other Health Benefits

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Other Health Benefits  There are many other benefits of probiotics. They affect:  • Inflammation: Probiotics reduce systemic inflammation, a leading driver of many diseases. • Depression and anxiety: The probiotic strains Lactobacillus helveticus and Bifidobacterium longum have been shown to reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression in people with clinical depression.  • Blood cholesterol: Several probiotics have been shown to lower total and “bad” LDL cholesterol levels.  • Blood pressure: Probiotics may also cause modest reductions in blood pressure.  • Immune function: Several probiotic strains may enhance immune function, possibly leading to a reduced risk of infections, including for the common cold.  • Skin health: There is some evidence that probiotics can be useful for acne, rosacea and eczema, as well as other skin disorders.  This is only a small…
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Impact on Digestive Health

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Impact on Digestive Health  Probiotics are widely researched for their effects on digestive health.  Strong evidence suggests that probiotic supplements can help cure antibiotic-associated diarrhea.  When people take antibiotics, especially for long periods of time, they often experience diarrhea — even long after the infection has been eradicated.  This is because the antibiotics kill many of the natural bacteria in your gut, which shifts gut balance and allows harmful bacteria to thrive.  Probiotics also combat irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a common digestive disorder, reducing gas, bloating, constipation, diarrhea and other symptoms.  Some studies also note benefits against inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.  What’s more, probiotics may fight Helicobacter pylori infections, which are one of the main drivers of ulcers and stomach cancer. If you currently…
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PROBIOTICS

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The bacteria in your body outnumber your body's cells 10 to one. Most of these bacteria reside in your gut, and the majority are quite harmless.  Having the right gut bacteria is even linked to numerous health benefits, including weight loss, improved digestion, enhanced immune function, healthier skin and a reduced risk of many diseases.  Probiotics, which are a certain type of friendly bacteria, provide health benefits when Eaten.  They are often taken as supplements that are supposed to colonize your gut with health-boosting microorganisms.  This article examines the health benefits of probiotics.  What Are Probiotics?  Probiotics are living microorganisms that, when ingested, provide numerous health benefits.  They’re usually bacteria, but certain types of yeasts can also function as probiotics. You can get probiotics from supplements, as well as from…
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5G Networks Benefits vs. Consequences

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In the world of wireless networking, there is a new generation that has been established-5G. While it might seem like an upgrade from 4G and before that 3G (and 2G), this article will help you understand everything about what 5G is, as well as the potential harm created by our usage of it! 5G is beneficial because it will allow for a new kind of network that is meant to connect almost everyone and everything together, including machines, objects, and devices. 5G wireless technology is able to deliver higher multi-Gbps peak data speeds, ultra low latency, more reliability, a huge network capacity that can be used by more people, and a more consistent user experience to a wider range of people. 5G promises device speeds that are approximately ten times…
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